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The Biggest and Best Archaeological Discoveries of 2019

Archaeology had another exciting year in 2019. With the help of modern technology and a lot of digging, archaeologists have found a lot of interesting things. From mummies with masks to a miniature Gobekli Tepe, we’ve been lucky to find out many of the secrets of the past.

. We learned new things about dinosaur eggs, how people came to live in the Americas, and even about a new type of human. Here is a list of the ten most important archaeological finds of 2019.

A Temple of Sacrifice in Mexico for a God of Fertility

In January, archaeologists in Mexico were thrilled to find the first temple to the “Flayed Lord” Xipe Tótec, who was one of the most important gods in Pre-Columbian times. The find, which included a stone image of the god and two altars for making sacrifices, will help historians and other experts learn more about pre-Hispanic religion and this fertility god in particular.

A huge sculpted head was found in a niche, which was one of the most interesting things they found. It took more than 30 people to get the head out of the hole in the wall. Nearby, they found a set of stairs that led to what used to be the pyramid’s basement. Here, archaeologists found a large carved torso and a second stone skull.

One of the most important Mesoamerican gods was Xipe Tótec. He was a god of spring, metal workers, new life, and fertility. Many people were killed as sacrifices to the god, and he was usually shown wearing the skin of a sacrificed person, which he would then throw off to show how nature was always getting better.

People thought that if they wore the skins of people who had been killed, they were honoring the god and that he would give them his blessings. There is hope that the site will have more evidence of how this rather macabre being was worshiped. Near the temple that was found, there is a huge mound that may tell us more about the god Xipe Tótec.

A Big Egyptian Family Tomb

At the Tuna El-Gebel archaeological site in Minya, south of Cairo, 50 well-preserved mummies were found in four Ptolemaic burial chambers that look like family tombs.

Inside the chambers, there were mummies of men and women wrapped in cloth, some of which still had pieces of colored cartonnage on them. There were also 12 children and babies wrapped in linen or decorated with Demotic writing. We still don’t know who they were, but the way they were preserved suggests that they were important or held prestigious jobs.

Some were buried in sarcophagi made of stone or wood, while others were buried in the sand, put on the floors of tombs, or put in niches.

Pieces of papyrus found in the grave helped figure out when it was made. It could have been made during the Ptolemaic period (305–30 BC), the early Roman period, or the Byzantine period.

Proof of a New Kind of Human

Researchers who were working in a cave in the Philippines said that they had found a new species that had never been seen before. The fossil remains of an adult’s finger and toe bones, as well as teeth, led them to think that this hominin was probably just under four feet tall.

A young child’s femur bone was also found. The remains are thought to be about 50,000 years old. This was during the Pleistocene, when different kinds of humans lived together on Earth.

The new species is called Homo luzonensis for now. It had some of the same traits as modern humans, especially in its teeth. But it also looked like an earlier species called Homo australopithecus, especially in the hand and foot bones.

The being had “long, curved fingers and toes,” which meant it could climb trees just as well as walk straight. This makes it look like it might be related to H. sapiens from a long time ago. erectus, that made it across the sea to the island of Luzon.

The find calls into question the widely held idea of how humans evolved and spread out across the world. The first group of our family members to leave Africa was H. erectus, and then H. sapiens. sapiens.

People believed that H. erectus moved to Asia, where it was the only person until modern humans arrived. H. pylori changed that. luzonensis and the earlier find on Flores have turned this idea on its head. This could change how people think about how we evolved.

66-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur Eggs

A 10-year-old Chinese boy was playing near a lake when he found a fossilized egg, which led to the discovery of a 66-million-year-old dinosaur nest. The fossilized egg was just the latest dinosaur find in Héyuán, Guangdong province, which has become famous for its many fossilized dinosaur finds, especially dinosaur eggs.

Zhang Yangzhe and his mother were watching him play on a slope near the Dong River when he found it. He was looking for something to use to crack a nut. The boy was digging in the dirt when he saw what looked like an odd stone. He carefully dug it out of the ground.

As soon as experts heard about the find, they confirmed that the strange rock was a fossilized egg. In the days that followed, they started digging at the spot where Zhang had found the eggs and found 10 more. They knew Zhang had found a dinosaur nest because all of the bones were found in the same area.

Archaeologists found evidence of a rich cultural and monumental landscape from before the Minoan period on the pyramid-shaped islet of Daskalio, which is far away and has no people living on it.

So far, the evidence shows that it was a major religious center built with technical knowledge that was at least 400 years older than what was found at Minoan Knossos. This means that it was an important part of the development of Greek civilization.

People lived on the island a thousand years before the Minoans, who are often thought of as the first European civilization. They had metal shops, buildings, and even indoor plumbing. The unique shape of the pyramid is the result of a lot of engineering work.

By building a number of huge terraces, people made the rocky outcrop look even more like a pyramid. Several buildings, mostly made of marble, were built on top of them. Some of the buildings had two stories, stairs, and were made of marble. The cultural landscape was built over a period of 40 years, and it was all based on the same plan.

The engineering, organization, shipbuilding, and metalworking skills needed to build such a place show that this civilization was already quite advanced by this time. This means that the culture had been around for hundreds of years or more and had been growing for a long time.

This political group existed at the same time as the Minoans in Crete and the Mycenaeans after them, and it may have had an effect on their growth.

Strange Carvings from a City Going Hungry

People who lived in what is now Vichama, Peru, 3,800 years ago carved snakes and human heads into their walls. They also drew pictures of thin people. They were dying of hunger and hoped that a god of water would finally have mercy on them and send rain so that their friends, family, and neighbors could live.

Experts say that their prayers were answered when they found a carving of a toad that looked like a person inside a ceremonial complex. In traditional Andean beliefs, a picture of a toad can represent rain.

The toad figure is shown with its hands around the face of a person below. This shows that the people of Vichama were either waiting for or getting the much-needed rain.

Vichama is one of the places where archaeologists have found evidence of the Caral culture, which was the first known culture in the Americas. It lasted until about 1800 BC, when Caral stopped being inhabited, possibly because of changes in the weather. But the people who lived in Vichama seemed to be better equipped and ready, so they were able to stay alive.

The first people in the U.S. may have come by sea.

This year, archaeologists found something that could be a big clue about how people came to live in the Americas. Their find goes against the most common ideas about when and how the first people got here. The findings show that people were living in the Americas much earlier than was thought. This supports the idea that people moved to the continent not over a land bridge but by boat.

The finds were made in a remote place called Cooper’s Ferry in Western Idaho. It is in a valley on the banks of the Columbia River. It is now thought to be one of the oldest places in the Americas where archaeologists have found things. Based on the results of radiocarbon dating and Bayesian analysis, people moved into the area between 16,560 and 15,280 years before the present.

The finds in Idaho show that the Clovis people were not the first people to live in America. They also show that people were probably living there before a corridor free of ice opened up about 14,000 years ago in the lower part of the continent.

This new information makes people wonder how people got to the continent at this time, when the Beringia land bridge was still frozen and thought to be impassable. So, the find backs up the idea that the first people to live in North America came by boat.

A 11,300 Year-Old Mini Gobekli Tepe

In November, archaeologists announced that they had found a temple from the Neolithic period with three almost-complete stelae that looked a lot like the famous Gobekli Tepe, which is the oldest known temple in the world. Archaeologists think the temple was built 11,300 years ago. It was found in the Ilsu neighborhood of Dargecit in the Mardin province of southeastern Turkey.

This old spiritual center was also in use at the same time as the famous Gobekli Tepe, which is thought to be the world’s oldest temple and the place where early civilization began. The 861 square foot (80 square meter) temple has some of the same pillars, symbols, and architecture as Gobekli Tepe, but they are all smaller.

The team has found the walls of a temple that was built 11,000 years ago. The walls were made of rubble and were held up by a hardened clay base. However, they have not yet found the base of the building. They also found four stone stelae. Three of them were said to be “very well preserved,” but none of the four had any “figurative inscriptions.”

A 3200-year-old sword was found at a megalith, which was a big surprise.

Archaeologists working on the Spanish vacation island of Majorca (Mallorca) made a surprising find in September: a 3,200-year-old sword at a Bronze Age site. The sword was found at the Talaiot del Serral de ses Abelles archaeological site in the municipality of Puigpunyent.

When the sword was found, the team was getting the site ready to be a museum that people could visit. At the site, two archaeologists picked up a rock and saw something sticking out of the ground. They thought that there was nothing else to find because the site had been dug up so much and the megalith had been stolen by Romans and others in the past.

Even though it’s over 3000 years old, the weapon is still in good shape. It is one of the few weapons from that time found on the island. The find is helping experts learn more about the mysterious Tailiotic culture. It also shows that weapons were used as gifts at talaiots, which were places of worship.

A Sunken City Has a Temple and Lots of Treasures

Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities said in July that marine archaeologists diving at the ancient submerged city of Heracleion (named after Hercules, who legend says lived there) off the coast of the Nile Delta had found the remains of a temple, docks, and boats full of ancient treasures.

In Egypt, the city is called Thonis, and it is under 150 feet of water. It is in what is now called the Bay of Aboukir, but when it was built in the 8th century BC, it would have been at the mouth of the River Nile delta, where it met the Mediterranean Sea.

The dive team found a “clutch of new ports,” which added about two-thirds of a mile to their map of the ancient sunken city. They also added to their map of Canopus, another sunken city near Heracleion. Also, one of the many old ships found at the site from the fourth century BC had dishes, coins, and jewelry in it.

Jackson White

Thank you for coming to The Ancientzen. My name is Jackon White, and I'm glad to have you here with us today. It's a dream come true for me to be able to research and write about history all day long.

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